WASHINGTON — President Joseph R. Biden Jr. on Thursday revealed a slate of recent govt orders and presidential directives supposed to hurry up manufacturing of Covid-19 provides, enhance testing capability and require masks carrying throughout interstate journey — a part of a sprawling 200-page national pandemic strategy he introduced at a White Home occasion.

Taken collectively, the orders sign Mr. Biden’s earliest priorities in mounting a extra centralized federal response to the unfold of the coronavirus. A few of them mirror actions taken through the Trump administration, whereas most look to change course.

Right here’s what the orders goal to do.

One order calls on company leaders to examine for shortages in areas like private protecting gear and vaccine provides, and determine the place the administration might invoke the Protection Manufacturing Act to extend manufacturing. The White Home has mentioned it might use the Korean Struggle-era legislation, which the Trump administration made use of in its vaccine improvement program, to extend manufacturing of a kind of syringe that enables pharmacists to extract an additional dose from vaccine vials.

The Biden group has mentioned it recognized 12 “fast provide shortfalls” essential to the pandemic response, together with N95 surgical masks and isolation robes, in addition to swabs, reagents and pipettes utilized in testing.

“On the asymptomatic screening facet, we’re woefully undercapacity, so we’d like the cash with a purpose to actually ramp up testing, which is so essential to reopening colleges and companies,” mentioned Jeffrey D. Zients, the brand new White Home Covid-19 response coordinator.

One other order establishes a Pandemic Testing Board, an idea drawn from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Struggle Manufacturing Board, to ramp up testing. The brand new administration is promising to broaden the nation’s provide of speedy assessments, double check provides and enhance lab area for assessments and surveillance for coronavirus sizzling spots.

“This effort will be sure that we get testing to the place it’s wanted and the place it’s wanted most, serving to colleges and companies reopen safely and defending probably the most susceptible, like those that reside in long-term care amenities,” Mr. Biden mentioned in his Thursday remarks.

Mr. Biden has vowed to make use of his powers as president to affect masks carrying wherever he’s legally allowed to, together with on federal property and in journey that crosses state traces. An order issued Thursday requires masks carrying in airports and on many airplanes, intercity buses and trains.

The identical order additionally requires worldwide vacationers to show they’ve a current destructive coronavirus check earlier than heading to the USA and to adjust to quarantining tips issued by the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention as soon as they land.

One order calls on the well being and human companies secretary and the White Home’s Covid-19 response coordinator to re-evaluate the federal authorities’s Covid-19 data-gathering programs and challenge a report on their findings. It additionally calls on the heads of “all govt departments and companies” to assemble and share coronavirus-related information.

The Trump administration struggled final 12 months to decide on a centralized system, pitting competing packages on the Division of Well being and Human Companies and the C.D.C. towards each other. Alex M. Azar II, the previous well being and human companies secretary, ordered hospitals to ship each day stories about virus circumstances to a non-public vendor that transmitted them to a central database in Washington, as a substitute of the C.D.C., which had beforehand housed the info. The choice, which stays in impact, angered C.D.C. scientists.

One other order creates a Covid-19 “well being fairness activity drive,” which is able to advocate learn how to carve out extra funding for components of the inhabitants significantly exhausting hit by the virus, analyzing wants by race, ethnicity, geography and incapacity, amongst different elements. Mr. Biden mentioned on Thursday that the duty drive would tackle hesitancy towards taking the vaccines.

The panel, housed on the Division of Well being and Human Companies, is an element of a bigger effort by the Biden administration to attract extra consideration to persistent racial and ethnic disparities in well being care entry, as minorities have been hospitalized and died from Covid-19 at considerably greater charges. Mr. Biden appointed Dr. Marcella Nunez-Smith, an affiliate professor of inner medication, public well being and administration at Yale, to steer the duty drive.

Mr. Biden issued an order meant to guard the well being of staff through the pandemic, telling the Occupational Security and Well being Administration to launch new steering for employers. The order additionally asks the company to step up enforcement of current guidelines to assist cease the unfold of Covid-19 within the office.

The president additionally directed the Departments of Training and Well being and Human Companies to challenge new steering on learn how to safely reopen colleges — a serious supply of controversy over the summer season when White Home and well being division officials pressured the C.D.C. to minimize the danger of sending college students again.

The Biden administration is looking on the well being and human companies secretary and the director of the Nationwide Institutes of Well being to draft a plan to assist the examine of recent medicine for Covid-19 and future public well being crises via massive, randomized trials. The therapies ought to be ones that “will be simply manufactured, distributed and administered, each domestically and internationally,” in keeping with the chief order.

The emphasis on randomized trials follows two emergency approvals — for convalescent plasma and the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine — that scarred the Meals and Drug Administration final 12 months. Federal well being officers, together with F.D.A. scientists, stay upset over the company’s choices, below Trump administration stress, to clear the therapies with out sturdy proof from randomized trials.