WASHINGTON — Voters have determined that President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. ought to information the nation by the following 4 years. However on problems with battle, the setting, legal justice, commerce, the financial system and extra, President Trump and prime administration officers are doing what they will to make altering path harder.

Mr. Trump has spent the final two weeks hunkered down within the White Home, raging a few “stolen” election and refusing to just accept the fact of his loss. However in different methods he’s appearing as if he is aware of he shall be departing quickly, and displaying not one of the deference that presidents historically give their successors of their remaining days in workplace.

In the course of the previous 4 years Mr. Trump has not spent a lot time enthusiastic about coverage, however he has proven a penchant for putting again at his adversaries. And together with his encouragement, prime officers are racing in opposition to the clock to withdraw troops from Afghanistan, safe oil drilling leases in Alaska, punish China, perform executions and thwart any plans Mr. Biden might need to reestablish the Iran nuclear deal.

In some circumstances, just like the executions and the oil leases, Mr. Trump’s authorities plans to behave simply days — and even hours — earlier than Mr. Biden is inaugurated on Jan. 20.

At a variety of departments and businesses, Mr. Trump’s political appointees are going to extraordinary lengths to attempt to stop Mr. Biden from rolling again the president’s legacy. They’re filling vacancies on scientific panels, pushing to finish guidelines that weaken environmental requirements, nominating judges and dashing their confirmations by the Senate, and attempting to remove well being care rules which have been in place for years.

Within the newest occasion, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin declined to increase key emergency lending applications that the Federal Reserve had been utilizing to assist hold credit score flowing to companies, state and native governments and different elements of the monetary system. He additionally moved to claw again a lot of the cash that helps them, hindering Mr. Biden’s potential to make use of the central financial institution’s huge powers to cushion the financial fallout from the virus.

Terry Sullivan, a professor of political science and the chief director of the White House Transition Project, a nonpartisan group which has studied presidential transitions for many years, stated Mr. Trump was not behaving like previous presidents who cared about how their remaining days in workplace formed their legacy.

“They’re upping stress in Iran, which might result in a confrontation. The financial system is tanking and they don’t seem to be doing something about unemployment advantages,” he stated.

It’s one remaining norm shattered by Mr. Trump — and a stark distinction to the final Republican president who handed over energy to a Democrat.

Former president George W. Bush consciously left it to his successor, Barack Obama, to determine easy methods to rescue the auto business and whether or not to approve Afghan troop will increase. And when Congress demanded negotiations over the financial institution bailouts, Mr. Bush stepped apart and let Mr. Obama minimize a cope with lawmakers even earlier than he was inaugurated.

Aides to Mr. Bush stated the outgoing president needed to go away Mr. Obama with a spread of coverage choices as he started his presidency, a mind-set clearly mirrored in a 2008 electronic mail about negotiations over the standing of American forces in Iraq from Joshua Bolten, Mr. Bush’s chief of workers on the time, to John D. Podesta, who ran Mr. Obama’s transition, only a week after the election.

“We imagine we now have negotiated an settlement that gives President-Elect Obama the authorities and protections he must train the total prerogatives as commander in chief,” Mr. Bolten wrote to Mr. Podesta on November 11, 2008, in an electronic mail later made public by WikiLeaks. “We want to provide, at your earliest comfort, a full briefing to you and your workers.”

That has not been Mr. Trump’s strategy.

The president has continued to disclaim Mr. Biden briefings and entry to company officers — delays that the president-elect has stated threatened to undermine the nation’s response to the pandemic. And much from in search of to assist Mr. Biden’s group, Mr. Trump has spent greater than two weeks actively in search of to undermine the legitimacy of his victory.

Mr. Biden and his prime aides haven’t publicly criticized the president’s coverage actions at house or overseas, abiding by the custom that there’s just one president at a time. However the president-elect has vowed to maneuver rapidly to undo a lot of Mr. Trump’s home and overseas insurance policies.

That can probably begin with a blitz of government actions in his first days in workplace, in addition to an aggressive legislative agenda throughout his first yr.

A few of Mr. Trump’s advisers make no try to cover the truth that their actions are aimed toward intentionally hamstringing Mr. Biden’s coverage choices even earlier than he begins.

One administration official, talking on the situation of anonymity due to not being licensed to speak publicly, stated that within the coming days there can be extra bulletins made associated specifically to China, with whom Trump advisers imagine that Mr. Biden would attempt to enhance relations.

Judd Deere, a White Home spokesman, defended the administration’s actions, saying the president was elected as a result of voters have been “uninterested in the identical previous, business-as-usual politicians who at all times pledged to alter Washington however by no means did.” Mr. Trump, he stated, had rolled again rules and introduced accountability to businesses and “stays centered on that necessary work.”

Some earlier transitions have additionally been rancorous. Incoming Bush administration officers accused the exiting Clinton White Home of minor mischief, last-minute pardons to associates and delays due to the disputed 2000 election.

Mr. Trump has lengthy alleged that after his election, he confronted a stealth effort to undermine his transition due to the investigations that have been underway into his marketing campaign’s attainable connections to Russia. And there have been documented situations of Obama officers making last-ditch efforts to place roadblocks in the best way of what they anticipated can be Mr. Trump’s coverage reversals on immigration and different points.

Nonetheless, in his inauguration speech, Mr. Trump stated Mr. Obama and his spouse had been “magnificent” in finishing up an orderly transition and thanked them for his or her “gracious assist” all through the interval.

And infrequently in trendy occasions have a president and his allies been as deliberate of their need to hobble the incoming administration as Mr. Trump has been towards Mr. Biden.

“It’s not according to something we skilled,” stated Denis McDonough, who served as Mr. Obama’s chief of workers and was a part of Mr. Obama’s group in the course of the transition from Mr. Bush’s administration. He stated Mr. Trump’s actions within the remaining days of his administration have been foreshadowed by his willpower to sever agreements Mr. Obama had reached on local weather change and Iran’s nuclear program — one thing presidents hardly ever do.

“It’s a breach of that norm,” Mr. McDonough stated.

A few of Mr. Trump’s actions are all however everlasting, just like the nomination of judges with lifetime appointments or the naming of his supporters to authorities panels with phrases that stretch past Mr. Biden’s possible time in workplace. As soon as performed, there may be little that the brand new president can do to reverse them.

However they don’t seem to be the one nominees administration officers try to hurry by.

Among the many others are two nominees to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors who would serve till 2024 and 2030 respectively, a trio of attainable members to the Federal Election Fee to serve six-year phrases, in addition to nominees to the Federal Communications Fee and the Federal Power Regulatory Fee, who, if confirmed, would stop Mr. Biden from putting in majorities on these our bodies till properly into 2021.

Different actions could also be attainable to reverse, however are designed to precise a political worth for doing so.

For the reason that election, Mr. Trump has ordered the withdrawal of hundreds of troops from Afghanistan, the place Mr. Trump goals to halve an already pared-down power of 4,500 by the point he leaves workplace, defying the recommendation of some prime generals.

Mr. Biden’s imaginative and prescient for American troop deployments isn’t radically completely different: He has stated that he helps solely small numbers of fight forces, primarily tasked with preventing terrorist teams like Al Qaeda and the Islamic State. However Mr. Trump’s last-minute withdrawals might power Mr. Biden into an undesirable confrontation with Democrats in Congress if he decides he must return to the modest, pre-election established order.

Analysts say that Mr. Trump’s withdrawal of troops additionally deprives the US of any leverage within the ongoing peace course of in Afghanistan between the Taliban and the Afghan authorities, probably permitting the Taliban to make necessary army good points.

Trump officers are additionally working to impose new sanctions on Iran that could be tough for Mr. Biden to reverse, out of a worry of opening himself as much as fees that he’s gentle on one of many nation’s most harmful adversaries.

The sanctions might additionally undermine any transfer by Mr. Biden to return to the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, a step that will require offering Iran with financial respiration room after years of Mr. Trump’s constrictions.

“I believe you’re going to see a fairly fast clip of latest actions earlier than January 20,” stated Mark Dubowitz, the chief government of the Basis for Protection of Democracies, who usually consults with the Trump administration on Iran.

In an Oval Workplace assembly final week, Mr. Trump additionally asked his senior advisers what army choices have been obtainable to him in response to Iran’s stockpiling of nuclear materials, though he was dissuaded from pursuing the thought. Any army motion would undermine makes an attempt by Mr. Biden to reset American coverage.

Equally, Trump officers proceed to take punitive actions in opposition to China which might be more likely to additional pressure the tense relationship with Beijing that Mr. Biden will inherit. Final week, Mr. Trump issued an executive order barring Individuals from investing in Chinese language corporations with ties to China’s army. Administration officers say extra steps are within the works.

Mr. Mnuchin’s shutdown of emergency lending applications this week might even have long-lasting implications for Mr. Biden as the brand new president struggles to comprise the financial fallout of the pandemic. The pandemic-era applications are run by the Fed however use Treasury cash to insure in opposition to losses.

Mr. Mnuchin defended his choice on Friday, insisting that he was following the intent of Congress in calling for the Fed to return unused cash to the Treasury. However will probably be Mr. Biden who shall be left to cope with the implications. And restoring the applications would require new negotiations with a Congress that’s already deadlocked over Covid aid.

In the summertime of 2008, officers in Mr. Bush’s White Home despatched a memo to company officers warning them to wrap up new rules — and to not attempt to rush new ones in proper earlier than the following president. Mr. Trump is doing the other.

The Environmental Safety Company is dashing to attempt to full work on a new rule that may change the best way the federal authorities counts prices and advantages, an adjustment that might make it tougher for Mr. Biden to increase sure air or water air pollution rules.

At Well being and Human Providers, the agency moved simply after Election Day to undertake a rule that will routinely droop hundreds of company rules if they don’t seem to be individually confirmed to be “nonetheless wanted” and “having acceptable impacts.” The company itself referred to as the plan radical — realizing it might tie the palms of the following administration.

Brian Harrison, the company’s chief of workers, referred to as it “the boldest and most vital regulatory reform effort ever undertaken by H.H.S.”

Reporting was contributed by Michael Crowley, Nicholas Fandos and Jeanna Smialek from Washington and Maggie Haberman and Emily Flitter from New York.